Zainab Khalfan Al Maqbali, Oman
Title: Association of Pre-Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2), Gestational Diabetes, and Pre-Eclampsia with Preterm Birth Among Omani Women
Background: An estimated 15 million infants are born preterm every year; now the second-leading cause of death across the globe for children younger than five years old. The aims of this study to determine if and to what extent rates of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus, and pre-eclampsia differ between Omani women who deliver preterm infants and Omani women who deliver term infants. Shonkoff’s bio-developmental framework provided the theoretical foundation for the study.
Methodology: This is a quantitative retrospective cross-sectional study using secondary data. Data were gathered from a simple random sample of 400 women who delivered preterm or term infants between 2015 and 2017 at Ibri hospital in Oman. Controls group included 200 women with full-term and 200 cases women with pre-term. After data extraction and cleaning, descriptive analyses and Chi-square tests of independence were conducted.
Results: A total of 400 randomly selected participants (mean age of the participants was 29.26 (SD ±5.75) years) were included in the study. Results indicated no differences in rates of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, or pre-eclampsia between mothers of preterm infants and term infants. However, results indicated differences involving selected clinical and demographic variables, including education level, multiple pregnancies complications in current pregnancy, and maternal history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and obesity. The findings reveal the significance of social determinants of health, including specific clinical and demographic factors, in predicting preterm birth for Omani women.
Conclusion: According to the results, the researcher recommends addressing the current study’s limitation of Omani specific results in broader studies covering a greater population and diverse population demographics. Also the researcher recommends the results of this study be applied to nursing practice and education by training nurses and nursing students to identify factors in patient family histories which might suggest high risk pregnancies.
Zainab Khalfan Al Maqbali has completed her PhD in 2019 from Villanova University, USA. She is the associate dean of Oman College of Health Sciences/ Al Dhahira Branch.