Tajmira SultanaDhaka Medical college Hospital, Bangladesh
Title: Amniotic fluid volume abnormality, a clue for various adverse conditions: A study in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh
Background: Amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid uterus. It is necessary for human fetal growth and development. The amniotic fluid volume (AFV) depends on the gestational age. AFV should be assessed at every prenatal ultrasound, as abnormalities in amniotic fluid volume are associated with a wide range of pregnancy complications.
Methods: A retrospective study was done on the admitted patients of Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obs and Gynae, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, during the year 2020. With due permission from department of Obs and Gynae and ethical clearance from appropriate committee, records of admitted patients with abnormal amniotic fluid volume were reviewed and analyzed for evaluation of their underlying etiologies and subsequent outcome of these pregnancies.
Results: Among total 656 admitted patients 130 (19.8%) had oligohydramnios and 27 (4.1%) had polyhydramnios. 76.9% of oligohydramnios was due to prelabour rupture of membrane. Other associated conditions of oligohydramnios were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and growth restricted fetus (11.5%) , Diabetic disorders (10.0%), Anomalous fetus (8.5%) and undetermined causes (2.3%). Polyhydramnios was mainly associated with fetal anomaly (59.3%) but a little percentage was associated with gestational diabetes (14.8%), multiple pregnancies (11.1%), chorioangioma (3.7%) and undetermined (11.1%) causes.
Discussion: Though idiopathic causes were found in a considerable percentage for amniotic fluid disorders in previous literatures and texts, we found that some abnormalities of pregnancy are almost always present with this.
Conclusion: It is important to keep an eye on amniotic fluid index for better pregnancy outcome.