Virtual Conference

Track: Spontaneous Abortion and Miscarriage

Spontaneous Abortion and Miscarriage


The natural termination of a pregnancy before twenty weeks of gestation is known as spontaneous abortion. To avoid being confused with induced abortion, spontaneous abortion is referred to as a "miscarriage" in common parlance. Only spontaneous abortions during the first trimester are considered to be early pregnancy losses. However, the majority of spontaneous abortions take place in the first trimester.

There are many different types of early pregnancy loss. Without sufficient uterine contractions to push out the products of conception, the embryo or fetus dies asymptomatically or "missed" in a missed abortion. Threatened abortion, on the other hand, is characterized by the symptomatic, "threatened" expulsion of the products of conception, but the cervical os remains closed and the embryo or fetus continues to be viable. An open cervical os, which indicates the "inevitable" passage of the conception products, distinguishes an "inevitable" abortion from a "threatened" abortion. There is an "incomplete" passage of the products of conception through the cervical os in an incomplete abortion. A "complete" abortion refers to the passage of all embryonic products. Three or more failed pregnancies in a row are considered to be recurrent abortions. Septic abortion can occur when the infected products of conception that were retained are induced during a non-sterile abortion.

• Chromosomal abnormalities
• Influence of RH factor
• Abdominal cramps or pain
• Discharge of fluid or tissue
• Lack of pregnancy symptoms
• Brownish discharge
• Miscarriage — threatened, inevitable, complete, incomplete or missed
• Ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy and a blighted ovum
• Diagnosis and treatment